Simulated world

The case for a simulated universe

The idea that our universe is actually a vast computer simulation has been gaining traction amongst academics and thinkers. Known as simulation theory, it proposes that the universe we observe could be part of an advanced simulation by a higher intelligence. This theory ties into the Big Bang theory, which states that the universe rapidly expanded from an initial hot and dense state around 13.8 billion years ago. Simulation theory argues that the Big Bang marks the initiation of the simulation boot-up. The expansion and acceleration of the universe over time could be explained by the simulation continually rendering new space and matter.

Several thinkers lend weight to simulation theory, including Elon Musk who argues there’s a “one in billions” chance that we are not simulated. While still speculative, simulation theory offers thought-provoking explanations for cosmic mysteries like the speed of light limit. As computing power grows exponentially, perhaps soon even we will possess the ability to simulate conscious worlds.

Ray Kurzweil and the technological singularity

Ray Kurzweil’s ideas about artificial intelligence and the concept of the technological singularity (the point at which AI surpasses human intelligence) lends support to the simulation theory. Kurzweil predicts that we’re approaching a point he calls the “technological singularity,” a moment when AI will surpass human intelligence. This event will lead to unprecedented technological growth, resulting in changes to human civilization that are impossible to predict. In the context of simulation theory, such advanced AI could theoretically be capable of creating highly realistic, even indistinguishable, simulations of reality.

Kurzweil’s vision of the future includes the idea that we’ll be able to create highly advanced simulations – not just of environments but of human consciousness itself. If AI can reach a point where it can simulate human thought processes, it might also be capable of creating entire simulated universes, a key concept in simulation theory.

Kurzweil envisions a future where virtual realities become as rich and complex as the physical world. This aligns with simulation theory’s suggestion that what we perceive as reality could actually be a sophisticated simulation.

A significant part of Kurzweil’s work involves understanding and replicating human consciousness, which raises questions central to simulation theory. If consciousness can be simulated, it opens up the possibility that our own consciousness might already be part of a simulation.

Mark Tegmark and the mathematical universe

Max Tegmark, a physicist at MIT, explores the nature of reality, cosmology, and the multiverse. With his research he argues that the universe may be fundamentally mathematical, which aligns nicely with some interpretations of simulation theory (in particular in his book “Our Mathematical Universe”).

Tegmark’s most notable idea is the Mathematical Universe Hypothesis (MUH). He suggests that our physical world is not just described by mathematics, but that it is mathematics. In other words, he proposes that the universe is a mathematical structure, and everything in it, including us, is part of this structure.

According to Tegmark, everything in the universe, including galaxies, stars, planets, and even our daily lives, follows mathematical patterns. He argues that the successful theories in physics are not just approximations of the universe but that they actually are the universe. This idea stems from the observation that mathematical equations are incredibly effective at describing the physical world.

If the universe has been simulated by a sophisticated computer program, the basic structure of nature itself would be mathematics: software programs follow mathematical principles at their most basic level.

James Gates and Error-Correcting Codes in String Theory

James Gates, a theoretical physicist, made an intriguing discovery while working on string theory, which is a complex framework in physics that attempts to tie together all fundamental forces and particles in the universe. He found something quite unexpected that sounds like it’s straight out of a science fiction novel: certain self-correcting computer codes (specifically, error-correcting codes) appear in the fundamental equations of string theory.

These Error-Correcting Codes are strings of numbers that are used in computer science to check and correct errors in data transmission and storage. Essentially, they’re like the safety nets of the digital world, ensuring that your data doesn’t get corrupted as it’s being processed.

While delving into the equations of string theory, Gates and his team found that these equations contained something very similar to these error-correcting codes. This was a surprising and unexpected find, as these codes are a human invention used in computing, and it was odd to see them naturally appearing in the fundamental physics of the universe.

This discovery by Gates has fueled some speculation about the nature of the universe and its connection to simulation theory. If the fundamental physics of our universe includes code similar to what’s used in computer programming, some wonder if this suggests that our universe might itself be a simulation or a computational construct created by some higher intelligence or advanced civilization. It’s like finding a snippet of JavaScript or HTML in the natural laws that govern the universe, which is a pretty mind-blowing concept.

Brian Green and computer games

Physicist Brian Green used an analogy of a computer video game’s graphics card to illustrate the idea of simulation theory and how it would work. Just as complex video game worlds are rendered by a GPU generating successive frames, our reality may be rendered at an equivalent cosmic frame rate equivalency bound by the speed of light. Even an advanced alien civilization may not possess infinite computation power. There may be practical constraints and tradeoffs on how fast their simulation can run while maintaining stability and accuracy. The speed of light could emerge as an indirect consequence of the tremendous, yet still necessarily finite, information processing capability required to simulate every fundamental interaction across our vast universe in real-time. Quantum indeterminacy may also stem from the discrete nature of the simulation struggling to model the infinitesimally small.

In simulation theory, the idea of “pixilation” can be compared to the notion that our universe, at its most fundamental level, might have a smallest possible scale or resolution – kind of like how digital images have pixels as their smallest unit. In physical terms, this could be related to concepts like the Planck length (1 x 10-35 meters), which is thought to be the smallest measurable length in the universe. Below this scale, the concepts of size and distance might cease to have any meaning, similar to how you can’t have half a pixel in a digital image.

So, in a simulated universe, this “pixilation” would suggest that space-time itself is quantized, or made up of discrete, indivisible units, much like pixels in an image or cells in a grid. It’s a mind-bending idea because it implies that the universe has a fundamental granularity or ‘resolution limit,’ beyond which the laws of physics as we know them might not apply or might operate differently.

This ties into quantum mechanics and theories about the fabric of the universe. If you were designing a virtual world and decided that everything in that world is made up of tiny, indivisible blocks. You wouldn’t be able to create or perceive anything smaller than these blocks, setting a limit on how detailed your virtual world could be.

Simulation theory origins: philosopher Nick Bostrom

Simulation theory can be traced back to philosopher Nick Bostrom’s 2003 paper “Are You Living in a Computer Simulation?” This seminal work made a statistical argument that at least one of the following statements is very likely to be true: 1) human civilization goes extinct before reaching a simulation-capable stage, 2) such civilizations have little desire to run simulations, or 3) we are almost certainly living in a simulation. This launched the modern conceptualization of simulation theory.

Bostrom doesn’t assert that we definitely live in a simulation; instead, he uses probabilistic reasoning. He argues that if it’s possible to create a computer simulation of a universe that’s indistinguishable from ‘real’ reality, and if such simulations are run, then there would be many more simulated realities than real ones. Therefore, statistically, it’s more likely we’re in a simulation than not.

It’s worth noting that while simulation theory is a popular and intriguing topic, it remains a speculative hypothesis. Many scientists and philosophers see it as an interesting thought experiment rather than a testable scientific theory.

Simulation theory builds upon previous philosophical ideas from Plato’s allegory of the cave to Descartes’ evil demon that reality may be an artificial construct.

Plato’s Allegory of the Cave from Plato’s “Republic”

Imagine a group of people who have spent their entire lives chained up in a cave, facing a blank wall. All they can see are shadows projected on the wall from objects passing in front of a fire behind them. These shadows are the only reality they know. Plato suggests that this is similar to our situation as human beings; we perceive a reality that is merely a shadow of the true, higher reality that we cannot sense directly. In terms of simulation theory, this can be compared to the idea that what we perceive as reality might actually be a ‘shadow’ or a simulation, and not the truest form of reality.

Descartes’ Evil Demon from “Meditations on First Philosophy”

This thought experiment suggests that a powerful and deceitful demon is controlling our perceptions, making us believe in a reality that doesn’t actually exist. Descartes used this idea to challenge the reliability of our senses and the certainty of our knowledge. Relating this to simulation theory, it’s like considering whether an advanced entity or system could be creating a simulated reality that we perceive as true, much like the demon deceives us in Descartes’ scenario.

Life after death

Simulation theory opens up profound new possibilities regarding life after death. Unlike skepticism about the afterlife in the atheist view of a purely physical universe, simulated reality allows for continuation of consciousness after bodily death. Death may simply mark the end of our avatar’s lifespan within this particular simulation. The higher intelligent creator(s) of the simulation could choose to upload minds to new simulated or physical existences upon death. They may also have created many parallel simulated realities and could transfer consciousness between them. The advanced beings running our simulation may also choose to respawn consciousness back into our existing world in different bodies. Simulation theory may provide scientific mechanisms to reincarnation concepts found in Buddhism and Hinduism. From a Simulationist perspective, death just marks a transitionary phase to whatever our simulator overseers have programmed to occur next – our consciousness may live on forever within the greater multiverse.

The Metaverse

In recent years, the idea of the metaverse has gained attention – a collective virtual shared space created by the convergence of physical, augmented and virtual realities. The metaverse concept means simulation theory is more relevant than ever. As video game graphics and virtual worlds become more immersive and lifelike, it strengthens the possibility that base reality itself is an advanced simulation. The developers of future metaverse platforms may possess the capabilities to create nested simulated universes and conscious entities within them. This blurs the lines between real and artificial realities. Simulation theory and the drive to develop metaverse spaces reimagine notions of existence itself.

Simulation theory quotes

Here are 10 intriguing quotes about simulation theory and the simulated universe argument from some prominent writers, artists, philosophers, and academics.

“If we are in fact in a simulation, it almost certainly won’t be galaxies and supermassive black holes that clue us into that fact. Rather, it’ll be something equally or more complex than us.”

– Neil deGrasse Tyson, astrophysicist

“I suspect we’ve been programmed to identify somewhere, sometime around 2012 the possibility of a radical reboot of civilization.”

– Terence McKenna, philosopher

“There’s this tiny hubristic corner of my ego that makes me skeptical of anyone who claims to know something transcendental or deeply mysterious about the place we find ourselves in.”

– Duncan Trussell, comedian

“We are simulations inside simulations inside simulations.”

– Jason Silva, media artist

“Believing we live in a simulation is no more speculative and unprovable than believing in heaven. It is, in fact, an expression of religious impulse.”

– Douglas Rushkoff, writer

“The universe may be a machine, indifferent to us with no more sense of right and wrong or care and harm than a stream or a rockslide.”

– Rudy Rucker, mathematician

“The entire universe is a digital phenomena, there is no subject/object dichotomy outside of language and conceptual overlay.”

– Alex Grey, artist

“If you were in a computer game, you would not necessarily know that you were in a computer game.”

– Nassim Nicholas Taleb, scholar

“We are stuck with technology when what we really want is just stuff that works.”

– Douglas Adams, author

“Your whole universe is nothing more than a thought in the mind of another. I’m sorry, it’s just a reflective surface, no more inherently meaningful than that.”

– Alan Watts, philosopher